Saturday, December 31, 2016

Gold Dust Day Gecko



The Gold Dust Day Gecko, a native to Madagascar, sometimes referred to as the Madagascar Day Gecko, does well in a tropical climate. Unlike most geckos, it is a diurnal animal, active during the day. They are territorial animals; males are especially aggressive towards other males.

These geckos are very colorful, usually bright green or a yellowish green. Halfway down their backs, they have three red teardrop markings. A blue shade is present around the eyes with bright gold markings on the back and neck. They feed on various insects and other invertebrates and are capable of eating other smaller lizards. They also eat soft, sweet fruit as well as pollen and nectar from flowers.  But they don’t bite humans.

Although these geckos will come into the house, probably looking for food, they are an arboreal species, spending most of their time in trees. If exclusion is desired, treat them as you would mice, rats and cockroaches; make sure to screen all windows, doors, ventilation passages and any small openings into the house.

Another species of gecko is the House Gecko, residing with humans in homes rather than in the wilderness. Being aggressive, this pale brown gecko drives other species away from the house. They are primarily nocturnal.

There are over 900 species of geckos worldwide, but only seven or eight reside in Hawai`i. Geckos are the only lizards who are able to make sounds, other than hissing.  Feeding on cockroaches, mosquitoes, ants, termites and moths, geckos are beneficial to home owners.

It has been thought that geckos are able to run up and down walls and ceilings due to tiny suction cups on their toe pads. However, recently scientists found that geckos have a network of tiny hairs and pads on their feet. With millions of hairs on each foot, the combined attraction of the weak electrical forces allow the gecko to stick to virtually any surface, even polished glass.

Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Citrus Skirt Pruning




Occasionally citrus trees have been pruned up off the ground. Some have asked, "What is the reason for this?"

Skirt pruning of citrus has been around for a long time in those countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The skirt of the tree includes those branches which hang down and touch the ground or are near to the ground.  In Italy, the skirts are pruned as high as the goats can reach.

In the United States, California in particular, skirt pruning done with clippers or a pruning saw, not goats, is a recent development and mainly came about as a means of controlling snails in the orchard.  By skirt pruning, usually 18 – 24 inches, snails as well as ants are denied easy access into the tree. Then the trunk is the only route.  Farmers can concentrate their pest control efforts on a small area, the trunk, rather than spraying the whole tree with pesticides. In the case of snails, copper foil is often banded around the trunk; snails will not cross the copper band. For ants a sticky material is sometimes applied.

Skirt pruning will also help control brown rot disease of citrus fruit. Since low hanging fruit is eliminated, the overall fruit quality will improve. 

Sunday, December 4, 2016

Raised Bed Gardening - Pros and Cons




Many people are drawn to raised bed gardening for several reasons.  In addition to the fact some areas do not have sufficient soil, raised bed gardens generally look nice and appear easy to maintain. In many parts of the United States, reasons for building raised beds are to keep gophers out or to have warmer soils in the early spring after the winter thaw. For portions of the Hawaiian Islands, gardening in raised beds or containers is necessary because of a lack of soil on lava hardened  terrain.  

Other reasons for building raised beds are 
 (1.) the soil may be extremely alkaline (a high pH) or acidic (low pH), 
 (2.) the soil is too compacted,  
 (3.)  the gardener needs wheelchair access and
 (4.)  the gardener prefers less stooping.
On the other hand something to consider is the maintenance of raised beds. If the frame is made of wood, it will eventually rot. If metal is used, it may rust. Actual construction of the bed can be time consuming and costly. In addition to wood, rock and plastic can also be used.
Two questions often arise. First, how deep do I need to make the beds?  The literature gives a range of 6” to 18”.  Crops like lettuce, onion and bok choy will do fine in a shallow bed. Yet deeper beds are needed for carrots, parsnips, corn and tomatoes.  Secondly, where do I get good soil? You can buy bagged potting mix at the garden store, which can be very expensive. Or you can buy a truck load of soil but be cautious. Soil may look good, but you can’t see N-P-K deficiencies or excesses, pathogenic fungi, bacteria, nematodes or pesticide residues including persistent herbicides. Bringing in soil can be risky.


Installing raised beds can be a satisfying project. But first, find out what your particular problem really is and why you are considering a raised bed. Perhaps correcting the problem would be a better solution than a raised bed project.  Possibly cheaper and less time consuming.

Photos from University of Missouri.